Why is a fractionating column used in fractional distillation?

The reason that fractional distillation gives better separation between the liquids is because the glass beads in the fractionating column provide "theoretical plates" on which the refluxing liquid can condense, re-evaporate, and condense again, essentially distilling the compound over and over.

Also question is, how does a fractional distillation column work?

Fractional distillation of crude oil. Because they have different boiling points, the substances in crude oil can be separated using fractional distillation. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours allowed to condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column.

How does a distillation column works?

If the mixture of water and ethanol is heated to about 195ºF, the ethanol will boil and change into vapor which is then collected and condensed. The water will separate and remain as a liquid. A fractionating distillation column is used to make this process more efficient.

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