What is a soap and how is it prepared?

The reaction is called saponification, and produces one molecule of glycerin and three molecules of soap, for each molecule of fat taken. The fats and oils most commonly used in soap preparation are lard and tallow from animal sources, and coconut, palm and olive oils from vegetable sources.

What are the products of saponification?

The main desired product from saponification is soap. A fat, usually a triglyceride, produces a fatty acid salt (soap) and glycerol. Triglycerides react with an aqueous base of sodium or potassium.

What is the process of hydrogenation?

Hydrogenation converts liquid vegetable oils into solid or semi-solid fats, such as those present in margarine. Changing the degree of saturation of the fat changes some important physical properties, such as the melting range, which is why liquid oils become semi-solid.

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